Vascular endothelium is the main organ, suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this review, the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the regeneration of the endothelium and in the formation of new blood vessels is considered. Mechanisms of migration and mobilization of EPCs from the bone marrow to the damage zone are described. The analyzed data show that CVD and DM cause the decrease in the number and the disturbance of the function of EPCs. The data on the heterogeneity of the population of EPCs are presented in article. The various combinations of surface markers for identification of these cells are assessed. At the same time, protocols for the identification of EPCs have not been developed, which confirms the relevance of the search for the phenotype of EPCs, which would be adopted as the standard.
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